wiki:ChasteGuides/GitGuide

Git Guide

Before you start, if you are Chaste User, and never want to contribute back to the source code, you might want to consider just downloading one of the release versions of Chaste.

This page is a brief guide on using Git, designed primarily for developers that are already used to Subversion.

For instructions on installation and global config of git see InstallGuides/InstallGit.

Before you let yourself loose in the depths of Chaste and git, you might like to read some of this Git Guide.

Quick Start

Assuming all you want to do is get the Chaste source code, make a few commits and push these back to the main repo, you can do something like this

$ git clone -b develop https://chaste.cs.ox.ac.uk/git/chaste.git Chaste
$ cd Chaste
$ edit cell_based/src/cell/Cell.cpp
 ... compile and run tests ...
$ git commit -a -m "#1234 Fix problems with `Cell.cpp`"
$ git push

Cloning a Repository

Cloning a Git repository is similar to checking out a subversion repository, but instead of getting only a particular subversion commit, you end up with a full independent Git repository that contains the entire history of the Git repository that you are cloning.

Official Chaste Repository Locations

Note that https://github.com/Chaste/Chaste is just a mirror for the first of these, and isn't set up for accepting pushes, so if you want to develop code for Chaste, then you have to set up the one below as your remote.

If you just want a copy of Chaste, to use as a library that you can keep up to date but don't want to develop code for, then cloning the github repo https://github.com/Chaste/Chaste.git is a nice way to do it.

Commands

Code developer

All Chaste development should occur from the develop branch. If you want to have your default local branch point be develop, so you can start editing and committing to this branch straight away, you can use the -b flag to specify a branch to clone:

$ git clone -b develop https://chaste.cs.ox.ac.uk/git/chaste.git Chaste

Note that only really minor changes should directly edit develop, most ticket work should proceed as per the ticket workflow

Code user

$ git clone -b release https://chaste.cs.ox.ac.uk/git/chaste.git Chaste

Note that this command will setup your local branch to point to the release branch of the remote repository, which is what we would recommend if you are using Chaste for the basis of a paper and want your paper to use the latest release of Chaste at the time of publication. There are other options you can use.

You may also want to use a master branch for one that should pass all tests but will have some newer features - you may have to update your code more frequently to keep it in sync with the latest chaste code. If you need even newer features, then ascend the following list as far as you have to!:

Branch What it's for Checked Out by above command
develop Bleeding-edge development code, new feature (ticket) branches should branch off here to minimise conflicts
passed_continuous latest code that passed continuous tests and isn't disastrous
passed_nightly latest code that passed above tests, plus some longer nightly ones including coverage and memory testing
passed_portability latest code that passed above tests, plus our suite of tests for different dependency versions
master Latest release-candidate quality code that has passed all tests
release Latest full release of the code <-
Release Tags Released code for past Chaste versions (e.g. v3.4), also accessible from https://github.com/Chaste/Chaste/releases with nice instructions and zips/tar files

Local Repository Changes

This is just like svn, you commit to one repository (the local copy/clone of a git repository).

Committing

Inspecting your current local changes is similar to subversion:

$ git status
$ git diff

You can add and remove files using the add and rm commands:

$ git add <file>
$ git rm <file>

If you want to commit all your local changes, you can use:

$ git commit -a -m "message"

The -a tells git to commit all changes. However, if you use this method you are missing out on the benefits of Git's staging area, which allows you to add individual files (or lines of a file) to the staging area. This allows you to , for example, only add changes that belong to a particular ticket.

$ git add <file1> <file2>
$ git add <directory>
$ git add -p <file3>

Unlike Subversion, committing your changes does not send them to the remote repository. To do this you must use the push command. Assuming you want to push back to the repository you have cloned, you can use push with no arguments

$ git push

Inspecting the History

  • Use log to inspect history. Use --oneline for a brief summary.
$ git log
$ git log --oneline
  • Use the diff command to see the differences between the working directory and the staging area.
  • The --staged option shows changes between the staging area and the last commit.
  • Use the HEAD pointer to see the changes between the working directory and the last commit
$ git diff <file> 
$ git diff --staged 
$ git diff HEAD

Undoing Changes

  • Reset <file> (not yet added to staging area) to the last committed version:
$ git checkout <file>
  • You can amend the current commit (e.g. change commit message, commit new changes etc)
$ git commit --amend
  • You can remove a file from the staging area (i.e. after using git add)
$ git reset HEAD <file>

Altering your history - Reset versus Revert

  • You can reset your history (soft reset) and optionally your working directory (hard reset) to a specified <commit>:
$ git reset <commit>
$ git reset --hard <commit>
  • You can remove a specified commit from the history (a new commit is made with the necessary changes)
$ git revert <commit>

Altering your history is best avoided unless you know what you are doing! And should DEFINITELY be avoided if you are messing with any commits that have already made it to the Chaste remote repositories.

Merging Changes

You can provide the name of the branch you want to integrate to the git merge command

$ git checkout <this-branch>
$ git merge <name-of-other-branch-to-merge-into-this-one>

For example, say you are working on the develop branch and want to write a new feature. So you create a new branch to work on and make and commit a few changes like so

$ git checkout -b new_feature_name develop
$ edit file1.cpp
$ commit -a -m "my wow new feature"

Now assume you have tested and are happy with the new changes. So you then go back to the develop branch and merge the feature

$ git checkout develop
$ git merge new_feature_name

Merge Conflict

If you haven't been making new commits to develop then this will work fine. However, if there are conflicting edits on develop and new_feature_name you might get an error message like so

Auto-merging file1.cpp
CONFLICT (content): Merge conflict in file1.cpp
Automatic merge failed; fix conflicts and then commit the result.

If you open file1.cpp, you will see standard conflict-resolution markers like this:

<<<<<<< HEAD
This is the new line in develop 
=======
This is the new line in new_feature_name
>>>>>>> new_feature_name

Now you need to edit the file to resolve the merge, and then commit the result

$ git add file1.cpp
$ git commit -m "merged new_feature_branch into develop"

or

$  git commit -a -m "merged new_feature_branch into develop"
  • If you want to see which files are still unmerged at any point, you can use git status to see the current state of the merge

Working with Remote Repositories

Git is a distributed version control system. You can happily commit, branch and merge to your heart's content on your own, local, Git repository. But eventually you will want to send these changes to the main Chaste repository or to another developer.

Setting Remotes

These will be set automatically if you clone a remote repository, but you can manually change them too.

Your local repository has links to a number of remote repositories, you can get a list using

$ git remote -v

Assuming you cloned your local repository from the main Chaste repo, you should see something like

origin  https://chaste.cs.ox.ac.uk/git/chaste.git (fetch)
origin  https://chaste.cs.ox.ac.uk/git/chaste.git (push)

origin is the name of the remote (the cloned repo is always given this name by default).

You can add a remote repo using the remote command

$ git remote add <name> <url>

Getting and Sending changes

Firstly, you should make sure you've done all the local changes you want (i.e. committed, see above).

Pull and Fetch

You can get commits from a remote using the pull command

$ git pull

To get commits from a remote without merging them into your local repository, use the fetch command instead

$ git fetch

The branch command will then show both the local and remote branches

$ git fetch
$ git branch -a
* master
remotes/origin/master

You can then merge any changes the remote branch (origin/master) into the current local branch (master)

$ git merge origin/master

Push

To send your new commits to the default remote (normally origin), you can use the push command

$ git push

Say you have created a new branch <branch> that you want to share, then you can push it to <remote> using

$ git push <remote> <branch>

If you want to get a new branch pushed by another developer, you can use the checkout command to create a new branch and set it up to track the correct remote branch

For convenience on your own machine you can get git to remember your username for the Chaste repositories. (Search for git credential to find out how to store passwords securely on your OS too.)

$ git config --global credential.https://chaste.cs.ox.ac.uk.username <your-username>

Ticket workflow

Unlike Subversion, Git branches do not use directories to manage branches and are lightweight and considerably faster to use and merge with each other. Each branch is simply a pointer to the commit at the head of the branch.

Note that Git does not have a trunk, you are always working on a branch, although typically the master branch fulfils the role of the trunk. Note that for the Chaste project, all development must occur from the develop branch.

The rough idea is that from now on every ticket's commits will appear on a feature branch (branched out from develop), until the ticket is ready to be closed, and then they'll be merged back in to develop.

Opening a brand new ticket

First, make sure you've made a new trac ticket. This will have a number (at the time of writing, a four digit number!) let's say XXXX. So the git branch will be called ticket_XXXX, wherever you see this below replace it with the number of your trac ticket!

Note: only do this if the ticket has never been worked on before, and a <ticket_XXXX> branch doesn't exist in the main repository already. If you haven't just opened the trac ticket so you aren't sure whether it exists, you can type:

$ git branch -a

which will display all local and remote branches that are available. If <ticket_XXXX> does exist, skip down to the next section.

Local repo

When you start work on a new ticket, you first need to create a branch on your local repository, as discussed here. If instead you want to use a pre-existing feature branch that's on the Chaste repo, see below.

You can pass the -b flag to the git checkout command to create and switch to a new branch in one action:

$ git checkout -b <ticket_XXXX> develop

To list all the available (local) branches/tickets:

$ git branch

Main repo

If you've made a new feature branch locally, you should then immediately make a copy of that on the central Chaste git repository, so do:

$ git checkout <ticket_XXXX>        # Just makes sure the branch you want to push is the one currently checked out locally.
$ git push -u <remote> <ticket_XXXX>   # Push a copy to the main Chaste repo. <remote> is probably just = origin. The -u should make git track the pushed branch as the new remote.

This will make a copy, with the same name, on the main Chaste repo that other people can work on too, by checking it out as below.

Working on a pre-existing ticket

If a ticket feature branch already exists, and you just want to grab a copy of it on your local repository just do:

$ git checkout --track <remote>/<branch>

e.g.

$ git checkout --track origin/<ticket_XXXX>

Note that after a branch is setup to --track a remote branch, every subsequent use of git pull and git push with no additional arguments will pull/push changes between the local and remote branches.

Note for all recent versions of Git (>1.6.6), as long as you have previously fetched the remote branch (run the above commands once), you can simply use

$ git checkout <ticket_XXXX>
$ git pull

Then make all the local commits you need and push them to the server, as above.

Merge the changes into develop

For the ticket's changes to be shared with everyone and automatically run through the test suite, we merge them into develop. Best to think of this in a few stages:

Test locally

Before you merge in changes from your ticket branch, it probably makes sense to locally test your code with any changes that have happened in develop since you branched off. So get any changes to develop with:

$ git checkout develop
$ git pull

Now go to your ticket branch, and merge in these changes

$ git checkout <ticket_XXXX>
$ git pull     # Get any changes that other people have done in the meantime!
$ git merge develop

sort out any conflicts that arise, and run local test suite.

Local repo

Merges can become very messy (despite git's advocates telling you otherwise!) if you are behind in the history, so do:

$ git checkout develop
$ git pull

To get your develop branch up to date (sort out any conflicts - there shouldn't be any if you've been doing work in ticket branches!)

Then the main command is simply

$ git merge <ticket_XXXX>

Main repo

Finally, send the change to develop to the main server with:

$ git push

Closing a ticket

Wait! after tickets are merged into master, it makes sense to leave the branches in place until the testing is complete (and you are sure the changes have made it into the master branch). The last thing we should do on each trac ticket now should be to delete the branches from the repo.

Local repo

$ git branch -d <ticket_XXX>

Note this only works if all the changes have been merged into develop (clever!). If for any reason you have extra local changes, but definitely don't want them merging in, you need to use an extra --force flag.

Main repo

There's a special command for this (because git push just refers to the branch you're on, not the whole repo):

$ git push origin --delete <ticket_XXXX>

works on recent git clients. If your git --version is < 1.7.0 you need to use git push origin :<ticket_XXXX>.

User projects

See InstallGuides/CheckoutUserProject for a guide on how to make new git user projects, or to convert existing svn ones to git.

Tips, tricks and troubleshooting

  • "Local .gitignore": The .gitignore file tells a repository the names of any files that should always be ignored for any/all copies of the repository. But sometimes it's useful to have some local changes that you don't want to involve in commits, or force on everyone with .gitignore.
    • Changes to files that are in the repository: in this case, a command like this:
      git update-index --assume-unchanged <file>
      
      does the trick.
    • New files not in git repo: then use the .git/info/excludes file as explained here.
Last modified 3 years ago Last modified on Nov 29, 2017, 4:51:02 PM